Focusing on cinematography alone, there are many ways in which the camera angle, positioning, framing and movement can affect emotion. Here are a few examples:
[WARNING: CONTAINS SPOILERS]
1. Wide shots - can be used to create detachment, to create a sense of emotional space between the audience and the character.
EXAMPLE: ORANGES AND SUNSHINE
When it came to some emotional scenes within this film from the point of view of the main character, the audience was often left to watch at a distance instead of being thrust into the moment. A sense of detachment was created because of the positioning of the camera which in turn allowed a sense of privacy for the character.
2. Close ups - can help intensify scenes of emotional responses.
One of the most emotional moments in this film is Rue's death. The scene focuses on close ups of both Katniss and Rue; occasionally a mid-close-up is included but the camera soon reverts to close ups. In doing this, the camera doesn't leave enough space for the audience's attention to be diverted elsewhere, which then directly involves and affects the audience in the characters emotions.
3. Dolly Zooms - a technique in which the camera pulls back from the character whilst zooming in. See here:http://film-forensics.blogspot.co.uk/2014/01/the-dolly-zoom_24.html
Originally, the Dolly Zoom appeared in Alfred Hitchcock's film 'Vertigo' where the technique was used to create a feeling of vertigo. It was also iconically used in Steven Spielberg's Jaws where it was used to portray the moment in which a character has a sudden revelation or realisation. It has since been used in various other films.
4. Super close-ups - an investigative shot. Can also be used in scenes of suspense.
EXAMPLE: DOCTOR WHO - THE ELEVENTH HOUR
One of the most suspenseful scenes in this episode uses super close-ups to intensify the characters' (Amy Pond and the Doctors') emotions (both fear, suspense and curiosity). The audience is suddenly intimately involved with the sensations the characters are feeling, and therefore share in those feelings.
The Doctor: Look
Amy Pond: Look where?
The Doctor: Exactly where you don't want to look, where you never want to look. The corner of you eye.
5. High-angled shots - used to isolate and belittle characters. These shots are often used when adults talk down to children.
EXAMPLE: BBC SHERLOCK - MIND PALACE
[See low-angled shots].
6. Low-angled shots - can be used to make the character look disproportionally larger for the purpose of creating feelings of suspense, or memory, and sometimes for showing that a figure is powerful.
EXAMPLE: STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION - VIOLATIONS
This scene is a memory sequence where Captain Picard accompanies Dr. Crusher to view her husbands body. The camera follows them down a corridor, angled at a low-level. It tracks them as they walk forwards, creating an atmosphere of suspense and anxiety. The entire scene is focused on reliving a moment of worry and fear, and the camera angles turn these emotions into real, tangible feelings by altering the audience's perspective.
5. Arc shots (Pan rounds) - in which the camera circles a character. This technique is often used to create a sense of disorientation and panic/distress. It can also create scenes of joy and excitement; anticipation for what might happen next.
EXAMPLE: THE AVENGERS ASSEMBLE
In this particular scene, the Avengers are standing in the wreckage of new York City side by side. The camera pans around them as they take a stand against the enemy, creating an overview of the newly determined team. This technique incorporates the sensations of excitement and adrenaline which gives the audience a sense of belonging.
EXAMPLE: THE HUNGER GAMES CATCHING FIRE
Another example of an Arc Shot is used in The 2nd Hunger Games film when Katniss enters the lift and enters the arena. The camera pans around her as she moves towards the surface and continues to rotate as she enters the arena and discovers what she's up against. The camera pulls back to reveal the location and then zooms back in to her face to show her emotions in comparison. This technique helps create an atmosphere of suspense, anxiety and disorientation, which thereby gives the audience the opportunity to live the experience with the character.